Directives: start_of_abc


This directive indicates that the lines that follow define a piece of music written in ABC music notation.

For example

T:The Gentle Breeze
E>F G/2E/2-E| {A}B2{^c/2B/2}A>B| G/2E/2-E d2| B/2^c/2d B/2c/2d| e>f d>f|\
e3 B| g>B f>B| ef| eB F>B| E4:|


The result could look like:

This directive may include an optional label, to be printed in the left margin. For example:,

{start_of_abc: Intro}

The ChordPro reference implementation prints the label in the left margin, see labels.

General rules for embedding ABC source

  • Always start ABC content with X:1 as first line and insert an empty line before the {end_of_abc} directive. Anything before this line will be considered formatting instructions (see below). See also Remarks.

  • ChordPro transposition using {transpose} and/or --transpose will transpose the embedded ABC. Adding %%transpose to the ABC source will affect the ABC notes only.

  • The ABC data is converted and included as a single image. No vertical splitting between staves.

Since the actual rendering is handled by external tools, ChordPro has no control over what and how the output will look like.

Formatting instructions

The ABC data may be preceded by formatting instructions:

  • scale=n
    Scale the image with the given factor.

  • center
    Center the image on the page.

  • split
    ChordPro will attempt to split the generated image into individual systems so longer scores can be put into multiple pages.
    Note that there is no guarantee this will work for your score.

Directives: end_of_abc

This directive indicates the end of the abc section.


To render ABC, ChordPro makes use of external tools to convert the ABC source to an image, and then embeds the image (see image directive). Depending on the external tools support for embedded ABC may be limited, or absent.

Always include X:1 as the first line of the ABC content, and insert an empty line before the {end_of_abc}. This delimits the ABC content so 3rd party tools can manupulate the ABC content directly from the ChordPro source.

If you encounter problems with ABC content, run your ChordPro file through an ABC postprocessor (e.g. abcm2ps or abc2svg) to see if there are errors in the ABC content.